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169) [NOTES (appended to this recipe:  Ordinary pie or pastry dough, or perhaps a preparation similar to streusel, unsweetened.
 Experimenting with this formula, we have adhered to the instructions as closely as possible, using regular pie dough to envelope the parboiled meat.
The first pies were very simple and generally of the savory (meat and cheese) kind.
Flaky pastry fruit-filled turnovers appeared in the early 19th century.
When combined with ground grains, it produced a rudimentary type of pastry.
Cooking methods (baked or fried in ancient hearths, portable colonial/pioneer Dutch ovens, modern ovens), pastry composition (flat bread, flour/fat/water crusts, puff paste, milles feuilles), and cultural preference (pita, pizza, quiche, shepherd's, lemon meringue, classic apple, chocolate pudding).
All figure prominently into the complicated history of this particular genre of food.
Moreover, there are several editions of ancient texts and recipe numbers/titles do not always match.
Food historians confirm the ancients crafted foods approximating pie.